Principles Of Hospital Architecture - Part Two

Principles Of Hospital Architecture - Part Two

Neighborhood and the principle of neighborliness
The principle of proximity is defined and explained based on two types of proper use and inappropriate use of urban lands, and in fact, neighborhoods can have negative or positive effects on each other. These effects in a negative direction include such things as dysfunction, deprivation of comfort, reduced efficiency, etc., as well as the proximity of two appropriate types of use, can increase efficiency, improve service levels and .... Therefore, paying attention to this issue is very important in locating medical centers. Here are some tips in this regard:
1. The location of the medical center should be considered near places with a high probability of casualties, such as commercial, religious, educational centers, crowded and dilapidated centers, roads, etc. Of course, this distance should not be so close that it is considered as the proximity of two unsuitable uses.

2. Preferably, the hospital land should be adjacent to or close to parks and green spaces and have a suitable view of nature and beautiful landscapes.
3. In choosing the location of the project, the fair distribution of hospital levels in the city should be considered. It is also necessary to respect the privacy of other hospitals and medical centers such as clinics, limited surgery centers, independent diagnosis centers, etc. In this regard, the location of the medical center should be appropriate to the health services network and the connection of the center with other medical centers far and near should be predetermined. Paying attention to this issue will affect the type of wards and care services required by the medical center, and the expectation of services and evaluation will be based on the capabilities and capabilities of the center.
4. Considering that a lot of care and attention has been paid to the detailed plans of cities and there are extensive support studies to decide on different uses, so it is important to pay attention to the suggestions of the detailed plan regarding the selection of a suitable place for establishing these centers. It has special.
5. The main and entrance side of the hospital should not be adjacent to the residential area.
6. Although a hospital in itself cannot be considered a potential target for an enemy attack, its proximity to sensitive buildings such as government, government, and military uses is of great importance from a passive defense perspective. The importance of this case is doubled when it is necessary to determine the distance of the hospital from sensitive buildings with careful and calculated studies in such a way that on the one hand direct attacks on that building do not harm the hospital and on the other hand services can be maintained with appropriate distance. Provided them with relief in critical situations.
7. According to the previous paragraph, although there are global protocols regarding the immunity of hospitals from attack during wartime, the very close proximity of medical centers to sensitive buildings will lead to the abuse of the enemy to attack medical centers.
8. It is possible to avoid the construction of these centers in the vicinity of spaces without an urban defense because it increases the possibility of anomalies in these places. Unprotected and indefensible spaces are places and spaces that do not belong to a natural or legal person and are not maintained. Such spaces are protected from view and therefore are cozy and safe spaces for unauthorized and abnormal activities. These spaces are in fact the result of contexts and factors at three levels: macro (socio-economic structure),
Are middle (institutional structure) and micro (physical structure).
9. Existence of some inappropriate uses in the vicinity of these centers reduces the efficiency of these centers because it reduces the motivation of people to visit it. These include landfills, municipal sewage centers, livestock, notorious neighborhoods, etc.
10. Location should be such that the principle of public comfort and well-being is not compromised. In other words, the operation of these centers should not disturb the well-being of citizens and the neighborhood.

Development plan or principle of abundance
The choice of land for the construction of the hospital should be such as to enable the development and expansion of these centers in the future. In other words, it is possible to predict the storage space for the future expansion of these centers. Experience has shown that every hospital needs to be expanded and developed every 10 or 15 years. Therefore, the location and design of the hospital should allow for any future expansion. Here are some tips:
1. There are two ways to predict future expansion. First, the land of the hospital should be large enough that part of the land should be used for construction to build a medical center. In the second case, part of the neighborhood around the hospital site is purchased to expand the building of the medical center and is used for this purpose. In this regard, the first case is the priority of choice.
2. Initial planning paid attention to the use of new neighborhoods after development so as not to be incompatible with therapeutic use.
3. In choosing the location of the hospital, the lands that allow the east-west expansion for the building have a higher priority.
4. In assessing the location of the medical center, the proximity of the center to a large space can allow the physical or functional development of the complex in crises. So that enough space is provided to install temporary canopies and rooms to serve patients.
5. In locating the hospital, attention should be paid to the future use of the neighborhoods, which is foreseen in the upstream plans, such as the comprehensive plan or the detailed plan, to examine the possibility of the hospital development plan by occupying adjacent license plates.
6. In the development plan, the demographic criteria should be considered. This index is one of the most important indicators regarding the construction or expansion of centers. This criterion includes the number and rate of growth of the urban population, the rate of growth of admission and morbidity of the medical center, the manner of distribution and dispersion of the population in the city, and so on.

Infrastructure and infrastructure
Due to the sensitivity of the hospital in terms of the type of use, urban infrastructure can have a significant impact on its operational continuity, especially in critical situations, which should be comprehensive urban studies. The location of the hospital should be about the urban infrastructure in such a way that in case of destruction of some of them, it is possible to quickly restore the infrastructure or, if necessary, create the necessary branches from this infrastructure to continue the hospital services. These basic infrastructures include water and sewage, gas, electricity, and telephone. Also in this group is the possibility of creating telecommunication networks, eliminating blind spots of mobile phones and radio waves, the possibility of establishing wireless communication and satellite systems, access to water for industrial purposes, the possibility of disposing of industrial waste and sewage, etc. In locating the hospital, attention should be paid to the infrastructure changes that are foreseen in the upstream plans, such as the master plan or the detailed plan, and its impact on the interaction with the hospital should be examined.

Economic indicators and cost estimation principle
The location of these centers should be such as to create a minimum cost for the relevant organizations and institutions, such as the cost of acquiring or purchasing land and building, the cost of facilities and equipment of the center, the cost of manpower, maintenance, and repair costs and ... should be done optimally and with comprehensive planning. On the other hand, the economic conditions of the community covered by the hospital are also effective in locating and planning the hospital.

Cultural indicators and social psychology
Due to its practical nature, psychological knowledge can help in choosing the best urban space for the construction and establishment of centers in investigating the causes and motivations of citizens' social and individual behaviors. This can be done through field studies and based on its study methods such as preparing and completing questionnaires, conducting interviews, holding conferences and meetings, calling for research, and so on.

Geographical location and climatic characteristics (microclimate)
The geographical location and climatic characteristics of the site should meet all the needs of a hospital in normal and critical conditions. On the other hand, its negative effects should be studied and considered in the planning of the medical center. Therefore, it is important to pay attention to the main components of radiation, wind, and precipitation in this regard.

Physical characteristics of lands
Paying attention to the natural and physical characteristics of the lands is very important for choosing the hospital site. Because some of these factors are known as design potentials and others will cause design constraints; These factors include factors such as soil type, land topography, location in the path of seasonal faults and floods, location in the path of mountain fall or avalanche, location in the river, the presence of natural features (hills, trees, streams, Valley), the existence of artificial features (aqueducts), groundwater level, etc., pointed out that each of them must be carefully studied and examined. In addition to the natural characteristics, there are man-made factors that will limit the location of the hospital. These include interfering with or adjacent to underground facilities such as main gas or oil pipelines, water and sewage canals, interfering with underground transportation lines such as the subway, interfering with or adjacent to high voltage power lines, and so on. Barriers to site selection were noted. In this regard, if the above items are located near the site, the privacy announced by the relevant authorities must be observed.

Land area and dimensions
The land is suitable for hospital construction that is suitable in terms of dimensions, with its needs so that in addition to providing enough space to build a hospital, according to the per capita, it has enough space for other services and welfare uses for different groups. Here are some tips in this regard:
1. In determining the appropriate land area for a medical center, the following 6 factors should be considered:
A- Occupancy level of the main building
B- Occupancy level of buildings and ancillary facilities
C- Occupancy level of roads and passages
D-Occupancy level of parking lots
E- Occupancy level of green space
And - Free level forecast for the development
2 The ground must be large enough for the building to rotate and be positioned in the best geographical direction.
3. The minimum proposed area (land area) required for medical and hospital spaces is suggested in the table below. It should be noted that these dimensions are more considered in medical centers and hospitals.
Space                                              Minimum proposed area (area)
Limited surgery centers                 650 square meters
32-bed hospital                               5000 square meters
64-bed hospital                               8000 square meters
96-bed hospital                              15,000 square meters
Hospital 124 beds                          20,000 square meters
160-bed hospital                            25,000 square meters
Hospital with 200 beds                  30,000 square meters
More than 200 beds                       per 150 square meters

A- If the hospital is educational, 10% will be added to the above.
B- In the case of psychiatric hospitals, due to the limited classes, the minimum proposed area is increased by 50%.
C- In special circumstances and if the urban planning criteria are observed, the number of floors and land area can be different from the proposed values.