After addressing the issues related to planning and design in the field of location, grounds, and spaces around the hospital, the next step is to get acquainted with the hospital building. To study the hospital building, first, the typology of the hospital in terms of form is determined, then the types of common forms of hospital building with the disadvantages and advantages of each are discussed.
1. Form and configuration of the hospital building
One of the factors influencing the architectural design, which in turn affects the efficiency of the building, is the configuration of the building. Also, when disaster resistance and crises are considered as the structural goal of the building, the building configuration plays an important role in how the building works against disasters. The configuration, which consists of the size, shape, and dimensions of the building, is expressed in both horizontal and vertical configurations.
The horizontal configuration of the building is suitable for the construction of hospitals on large plots of land and medium-sized hospitals.
Another approach to building design is a vertical configuration. This method is suitable for limited and dense lands where it is not possible to build a large hospital building on horizontal surfaces.
The most important point about designing a hospital uniform is to pay attention to its function, beauty, and structure at the same time so that not paying the same attention to any of these cases will lead to irreparable problems in the design process.
There are various patterns in the design of the hospital form, the most common of which are the regular volume pattern, Latin letter pattern, linear pattern, central pattern, radial pattern, island pattern, cluster pattern, continuous composite pattern, discrete composite pattern. And ... he pointed out. The following is a description of each of these models and their advantages and disadvantages.
The pattern of regular volumes
One of the simplest models used in the hospital is the regular volume model, which includes a cube, a cylinder, and a prism. Normally, in such a model, proper performance and workflow can be easily provided. Also, the design and structural calculations of this type of pattern are common and easy, but in general, its lack of formal attractiveness and problems in providing natural light in its central part is among the disadvantages of this method.
Latin alphabet pattern
Some forms can be placed in this group due to their similarity to Latin letters. The main purpose of using these forms is to reduce the rigidity of volumes and provide natural light, natural ventilation, and having a variety of views in indoor spaces. There are also semi-private yards in these forms that create potentials in the design. Among the forms of Latin letters, we can mention L, U, H.
Flexibility and hospital development plan
One of the issues that are important in the hospital both during design and planning and during operation is the issue of flexibility, followed by the possibility of planning the development of the hospital. Factors such as population growth, increasing patient size, increasing average age of the population, hospital recognition, and many other reasons double the importance of paying attention to the functional efficiency and flexibility of the hospital. In fact, the inflexible building prevents the possibility of making changes in the interior spaces, which reduces the efficiency of the hospital in providing services. Therefore, the possibility of future flexibility and development based on appropriate needs in planning and design should be possible.
Classification of changes and development plan
The need for changes and physical development of the hospital is divided into two main groups, each of which pursues different characteristics in the way of flexibility and development, depending on the relevant conditions.
Short-term and temporary changes
This group of changes is considered in critical situations affected by natural or human factors. In critical situations, the hospital plays one of the most sensitive and vital roles in crisis management. Due to the multiplication of the acceptance rate in critical situations and cross-sectionally, which in some cases may even reach several times the acceptance rate in normal conditions, the need for short-term and temporary changes is considered.
Long-term and permanent changes
Several factors cause the necessary measures to be taken to develop the hospital after a few years of operation. In this regard, the main factor that necessitates the need for flexibility and expansion is the changes that take place in the annual admission rate of the hospital. In fact, since an increase in annual admissions is inevitable, the issue of the emergency department expansion plan is a natural thing that should be taken seriously.
The importance of the impact of climate on architecture requires comprehensive studies and research in this field. Especially in our country, where the diversity of climatic conditions is quite evident, extensive research in this field will be inevitable. In situations where design constraints are low, the most suitable forms for a small building can be determined by considering the influence of climatic factors. However, in the case of large buildings, as the number of influential components in the design and planning of the hospital is significant, it is difficult to answer all of these cases and the design may not be fully adapted to the climatic conditions of the region. However, the designer must make every effort to ensure this. Paying attention to climatic features and the impact that these features have on the formation of the building, in terms of increasing the useful life of the building, raising the quality level of comfort and health in indoor spaces, as well as in terms of energy consumption to control environmental conditions. Spaces are very important.
Principles of hospital architecture design in the four climatic regions of Iran
Appropriate and efficient design to maximize the climatic potential of the region and reduce its negative effects should be based on climate indicators. These indicators will ultimately affect components such as type of material, type of plan, the orientation of the building, surface and number of openings, natural ventilation, texture density of the complex, type of exterior color of the building, etc.
Design modules (from the perspective of architecture, structures, and equipment)
The choice of a design module for the architecture of the hospital is very important. Many studies have been done to select a module that covers all sections. However, due to the variety of spaces, these modulations can not be used in all parts of the spaces.
The presence of unconventional spaces such as radiology, examination rooms, and special specialized spaces has made it difficult to select design modules, but in general, it can be said that the 120 cm module is the best module for hospital design. This module allows the placement of columns with a distance of 6 meters or 7.2 meters in the bed space. From an architectural point of view, the module is ideal so that the design does not face a lack of space or waste of space. In the studies performed on three modules of 50, 60, and 70 cm, the 60 cm module has been selected as the optimal module. Some of the reasons for this choice include the following:
In 60 cm modules, the design of many spaces is done reasonably and optimally, taking into account the equipment, workflow, volume of traffic, etc. Among these cases, we can mention the dimensions of the openings, how to establish and modulate the openings, the dimensions of specialized medical and diagnostic spaces, the dimensions of corridors and common areas, joinery, etc.; However, in 50 or 70 cm modules, the dimensions of the mentioned items will be less or more than the required dimensions.
Structurally, the columns should be oxidized in such a way that there is no problem in the interior design of the spaces in terms of architectural layout, and the location of the columns should be more inside the blades, and equipping the spaces should not be a problem due to structural elements. Achieving these points can be achieved to a large extent in 60 cm modules. In addition to the above, the location of the columns should be designed in such a way as to provide the maximum efficiency of the spaces. Is. This principle must be observed in the case of the joint of columns and walls in spaces of great importance, as well as the main and secondary corridors connecting the sections, otherwise, the resulting appendages can cause dysfunction of the space, weaken the workflow. Appropriate, reduce infection control in sensitive spaces, weaken workflow, lack of purity of space, etc.
3. Medical equipment:
In the studies performed about the placement and arrangement of modern medical equipment, according to the size and dimensions of this equipment, a 60 cm module is more appropriate. In this module, space shortage or space deviation will be minimized. However, in 50 or 70 cm modules, the dimensions obtained from the modules will be less than or more than the required dimensions.