Principles Of Hospital Design And Equipment (Part 5) - Inpatient ward

Principles Of Hospital Design And Equipment (Part 5) - Inpatient ward

Standards, per capita and introduction of different wards of the hospital

Engineer Sadegh Pourbakht, project manager of Espo Company

Hospital ward:
The following spaces are necessary for the surgical ward:

Incoming and waiting clients, access corridor, drug room, and clean workroom, isolated patient isolation room, an aristocratic nursing station for all patients, physician reporting room, separate toilets for staff, special operating room or space, support spaces such as rest and locker room Nurses, Employees' Watershed and Dining Room, Dirty Room, Clean Accessories Warehouse, Warehouse or Parking Equipment for Medical Equipment, Bunker and Wheelchair, Separate storage area for infectious and non-infectious waste.
The infrastructure of hospital wards:
The minimum useful area of ​​each bedroom is a bed without taking into account the bathroom and the entrance space of the room is at least 12 square meters.
The minimum useful area of ​​each double-bed hospital room, including the bathroom and the entrance space of the room, is at least 20 square meters.
The minimum useful area of ​​bedrooms is three beds and above, excluding the bathroom and the entrance area, at least 9 square meters per bed.
Hospital wards and rooms should be designed in such a way that it is easy to rotate the bed.
Types of hospital wards:
Internal hospitalization
Surgical hospitalization
Hospitalization of women and childbirth
Children's hospitalization

Internal hospitalization:
This area covers a wide range of internal diseases.
Due to the complexity of the treatment process, hospitalized patients in this ward spend more time in the hospital than patients in other wards, which should be considered in designing rooms and determining the number of beds in this ward.
Women's section:
1- 15 square meter warehouse
2- Medical pavilion for men and women 36 square meters
3- Sanitary service
4- Nursing station (3/5/2 meters)
5- Cabinet restroom 8 square meters
6- Personnel restroom for men and women 36 square meters
7- Eco
8- At least one assistant physician's room and two doctor's rooms for minor examinations and treatments of 16 to 20 square meters.
9- Washing room: T-wash 2 * 3 meters, beds 3 * 3 meters
10- Electric room m2 8
11- Kitchen m2 15
12- Section rooms (1 board 15 square meters and 8 beds per square meter)
The minimum room width is 20.3 meters
Room door 1/26 * 2/13 m
Patients 'Rest Room A room with an area of ​​22-25 m2 for ordinary patients' meetings with each other
Size in room 1221 mm 2130 mm and their sound insulation Cabinet noise reduction up to 32 decibels
Toilet bowl height490
In each ward, toilets are essential for staff and to meet with the disabled.
If possible, each shower room and separate service, but the presence of standard sinuses and toilets in today's hospitals.
 Easy-to-use mm860 height wheelchair accessory.
Open hospital ward:
One of the first problems is hospitalization, in which all patients were kept in a large hall.
Lack of control over the environment, deterioration of patients' privacy, the spread of infection, low quality of the environment, noise pollution, and lack of consideration of the role of the family in treatment are the main disadvantages of this plan.
Support spaces were usually provided at the beginning of the section.
In this type of plan, the location of the nursing station is located in the center of the project, for maximum control and service to patients.

An open hospital with a corridor and a nursing Reception 
In this ward, patients are admitted to private or multi-bed rooms.
A main corridor inside the section plays the role of communication between the support spaces and the personnel with the hospital rooms.
This type of plan is the form that has been the most common type of hospital ward in recent years.
Open hospital with a corridor and two nursing stations
The only difference between this form and the previous one is that it has two nursing stations, and as a result, the volume of nursing services is divided.
This form is for parts with a large number of hospital rooms and beds.
Inpatient ward with two corridors and an inner courtyard
This form is another form of the previous system in which the lighting problem in the support rooms is largely solved by using a central courtyard.
Cross-section with cross-form
The basis for the formation of this form was the change in the common forms of the inpatient ward to achieve a more voluminous volume.
However, the influence of religious beliefs on the creation of the cross is undeniable.
In this form, the central spaces are dedicated to the support and personnel sections, and the outer sides of the section are related to the patients' hospital rooms.
The disadvantage of this design is the lack of lighting in the central part of the plan and the support sections, which can be solved by considering the central courtyard.
Radial form
The initial form of this type of section is circular, which can be organized in a polygonal shape. In this plan, the central part of the plan is related to the support space.
The discarded space of this form is more than other forms.
Children's hospital ward:
This section is dedicated to children's internal diseases. The children's section should be designed in such a way that it has a childish scale. Visiting the outdoors, if there is beautiful scenery, using a variety of colors and beautiful shapes in the room, will improve the healing process of the child and also the peace of the patient's family. In the ward, there is sometimes room for children to play.
The minimum lateral distance of each bed from the sidewall is 70 cm and the minimum distance of the bed from the facing wall is 120 cm.

The minimum lateral distance of two beds from each other is 140 cm and the minimum longitudinal distance of two beds from each other (if the two beds are facing each other) is 150 cm.
The minimum useful area of ​​the nursing station in the inpatient department is 8 square meters, excluding toilets, entrance space, medicine, and clean work.
The minimum useful area of ​​the dressing room in the hospital ward, considering the nature of this ward, is 15 square meters.
The minimum useful width of the main corridor in the hospital ward is at least 4.2 meters.
The emergency exit of the hospital ward is marked with clear and transparent symptoms.
The hospital should preferably have separate inpatient wards with relevant specialties such as orthopedics, urology, neurosurgery, and so on.
Children are admitted to a separate ward called the pediatric ward due to their greater vulnerability than adult patients. The goal is to prevent the transmission of nosocomial infections and infections to this group of patients. But the important point is that different cases are hospitalized in the pediatric ward, and therefore the probability of transmission of infection from sick children in the ward to each other is higher than other wards.
The following spaces are essential in the pediatric ward:
Mobile medical equipment park, separate bathroom and toilet for companions and clients, doctor's examination room, psychiatric isolation room, meeting room, mothers 'room and prayer room, children's playroom, mothers' watering or dining room, infectious patient isolation room, nursing station With nobility to all the beds.
The infrastructure of the pediatric ward
The minimum useful area of ​​each hospital room is a children's board without taking into account the bathroom and the entrance space of the room is at least 11.5 square meters.
The minimum useful area of ​​each bedroom for two children without a toilet, including the bathroom and the entrance space of the room, is at least 20 square meters.
The minimum useful area of ​​bedrooms for children with three or more beds, excluding the bathroom and the front entrance, is at least 9 square meters per bed.
At least one infectious isolation room is required in the pediatric ward.
The use of cheerful and childish colors and sound-absorbing materials in the children's hospital ward is mandatory.
The materials used in the pediatric ward should be such as to prevent the accumulation of microbial and biological contamination as well as sound, optical and visual abnormalities.
Access to other hospital services such as operating rooms, CSR, radiology, nuclear medicine, emergency room, laundry, elevators, and vice versa is easily accessible.
The design of support spaces in the hospital ward should be by the current conditions of the ward, the number of beds, and other available per capita and should meet the needs of the ward.
An infectious isolation room is required in each internal hospital ward.
It is essential to have at least one psychiatric isolation ward in one of the hospital's inpatient wards.
The use of cheerful and soothing colors and sound-absorbing materials in the surgical ward is mandatory.
The materials used in the hospital ward should be such as to prevent the accumulation of contaminants as well as audio and visual abnormalities.
The lights used in the hospital ward should not be in such a way as to cause an error in recognizing the true color of people and objects.
At least 2 shifts of fresh air per hour are essential for the inpatient ward.
The best ambient temperature for the surgical ward is between 22 and 25 degrees Celsius.
The condition of the air conditioning in the surgical ward should be such that the presence of fresh air and air conditioning is well felt.
The intensity and direction of the light of the lighting lights in the hospital wards should be such that the light does not hit the eyes of the patients directly and does not cause them discomfort. Indirect light is preferred.