Since humans spend most of their time indoors, it is very important to pay attention to design and architecture in the spaces that make up a place. In other words, the main part of any place from an architectural point of view is the interior spaces of that place. Because the maximum presence of each user in a building, of course, is the interior of the place, not the exterior.
In medical centers, providing services in different categories, proper workflow, and correct processes depend on the proper design of indoor spaces. Also, providing comfort and well-being to all people, including patients, staff, and clients can be effective in the productivity and efficiency of services and accelerate the process of recovery of patients. Therefore, it is very important to pay attention to the category of interior design.
About issues related to interior spaces in medical centers, we can include items such as hospital infrastructure, location, and internal communication, internal dimensions and proportions, communication elements and components, joinery requirements, opening requirements, light and lighting, paint, insulation requirements Sound regulation and regulation, infection control, safety in indoor spaces and the requirements of the disabled in indoor spaces, etc. were mentioned. Here are some tips on each of these.
In each country, based on the policies of the country's medical network, facilities, restrictions, etc., rules are considered to calculate the required area of hospital spaces. In this regard, general points about the division of the site, how to calculate the hospital infrastructure, etc. are provided:
Site segmentation according to user type
As mentioned, there are three main areas, including the occupancy level of the hospital building, parking, and green space on the hospital site, to which the minimum appropriate area should be allocated:
1. Occupancy level regulations for medical and hospital spaces on the ground floor of most comprehensive urban plans have been announced as a maximum of 40% of the area.
2. The standard of parking level in health and medical uses Most of the comprehensive urban plans have been announced as a maximum of 30% of the area.
3. According to the criteria of most comprehensive urban plans regarding green space in health, medical and university uses, the minimum area of green space is 30% of the area.
How to determine the per capita and calculate the infrastructure of the hospital building
The infrastructure of the hospital includes all the spaces in the main building of the hospital, including various wards, corridors, and common areas, and even the surface occupied by the elements of structures, walls, elevators, stairs, installation channels, etc. In fact, the hospital infrastructure is the same gross total area as the main hospital building.
Location and internal communication
One of the important categories of interior spaces is the location and internal communication of departments. It is due to a suitable location that the spaces of a medical center are efficiently placed next to each other and a suitable spatial connection is created between them. In this regard, it is very important to pay attention to the factors that affect the location of functional areas in medical centers.
In this regard, to achieve a proper connection between these spaces, it is necessary to first have sufficient knowledge of the constituent parts
Establish a medical center.
Factors affecting location
Factors that affect the location of functional areas in medical centers are:
1. Ease of communication between functional areas with each other and outside the collection
2. Safety of people and physical space
3. Welfare, comfort, and communication with the surrounding environmental elements
4. Post-crisis operation
5. The possibility of future development and expansion
In the following, points will be provided regarding each of these factors. It should be noted that the issues related to location
It is necessary for each hospital ward based on these factors.
Ease of communication between functional areas with each other and with the outside
The most important factor in locating wards is providing proper functional communication between hospital wards. Functional areas in medical centers should be interconnected and organized in such a way that the highest level of productivity and service can be achieved by the proper placement of these spaces together.
Safety of people and physical space
Another factor that affects the location of functional areas is the issue of safety. Safety can include protecting people (patients, staff, and clients) as well as protecting physical space (buildings, equipment, and facilities).
Welfare, comfort, and connection with the surrounding environmental elements
Interacting with the outside environment and communicating with the natural environment, both physically and visually, in medical centers is very effective in improving the physical and mental condition of patients. Therefore, the hospital designer should pay attention to the fact that the connection of each hospital space with the natural environment is considered very important.
One of the components that are important in locating functional areas in medical centers is to pay attention to the performance of that department during the crisis and after the crisis. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to this issue in locating spaces and considering proximity.
Possibility of future expansion
In case of planning to increase the capacity of care and treatment departments in the future, it is recommended to consider the future development in locating the spaces. For this purpose, the land in question must have the potential for future development. But the point to be noted is that this development does not affect the natural environment and landscaping around the hospital and does not reduce the per capita green space. Also, after development, the level of service delivery, patient and staff comfort, and in general, hospital productivity and efficiency should not decrease. Therefore, all necessary arrangements and facilities must be provided in this regard after development.
General location of the main wards of the general hospital
The emergency is one of the most important and main parts of the hospital that plays a vital role in providing emergency medical services to patients in need. These patients often go to the emergency department unforeseen, so the emergency department should be able to provide primary medical services to a wide range of patients around the clock. The type, level, and volume of emergency services are determined based on the general policies of the hospital and the conditions of the region.
According to the World Health Organization, a clinic is part of a health care system that is provided in health homes, health centers, and hospitals. Hospital clinics only provide specialized medical services. The main specialties of a clinic are formed based on the specialties of the hospital wards. However, some other specialties can be considered in addition to these main specialties.
Medical Imaging Department
Physicians use diagnostic imaging techniques to diagnose the disease or to obtain more information about the type of disease, its location, the type of lesion, or its extent. The function of this section is not therapeutic and is used only for diagnosis. Of course, today, with the advancement of technology, some of these methods are also used in non-invasive treatments.
Medical Diagnosis Laboratory Department
Valuable information is obtained from the study and study of samples received from the human body to help doctors diagnose the disease. The variety of laboratory services and the process of becoming more specialized in laboratory methods and equipment, highlight the importance of familiarity with the precise operation of this department before the design process begins.
Physiotherapy provides services to people whose limbs have been physically injured or disabled. In this treatment, no medicine is used and non-medicinal and natural elements are used to treat the lesion. In general, physiotherapy focuses on the treatment of ossification and muscle and its goal is to improve and regain the ability to move and rotate and achieve balance and fitness.
Department of Surgery
Designing the surgical ward, which is one of the most important areas of a hospital, is one of the most complex architectural sections of a medical center. Technological advances are intermittently leading to the production of new surgical systems, which in turn leads to increased patient comfort, safety, and accuracy in surgery.
Therefore, for initial analysis and planning before design, the opinions of surgeons, anesthesiologists, surgical nurses, support and service departments should be used and they should be involved in the up-to-date design process of this department to meet the needs of the medical community, patients And provided for their families.
The maternity ward is one of the most important wards of public hospitals, which provides ideal and safe facilities and conditions for pregnant women so that they can give birth naturally in a healthy and calm environment. Accurate and informed planning and design of delivery departments and units in the hospital, to create a suitable, safe, and pleasant environment for women and infants, can have a major impact on the provision of appropriate delivery services by doctors, nurses, and other hospital staff.
Types of inpatient wards
Undoubtedly, the main core of any hospital is its inpatient wards, and in terms of area, most of the infrastructure of each hospital belongs to its inpatient wards, so that it occupies about 25% of the area of a hospital. Gives. The number of hospital beds determines the main structure of the planning and design of a hospital, and all the therapeutic, diagnostic, and support functions of a hospital are formed around these wards. It should be noted that the type, level, and volume of services of inpatient wards are determined in line with hospital planning.
Types of intensive care units
Patients who have an intermediate status and the services they need are less than intensive care units and more than inpatient wards are admitted to intensive care units.
In general, for different medical specialties, different intermediate care departments are foreseen, each of which is designed with the relevant specialized and functional needs.
It is worth mentioning that among the intensive care units in general and specialized hospitals, we can include items such as general intensive care unit, surgical intensive care unit, internal intensive care unit, cardiac intensive care unit, cardiac surgical intensive care unit, and. .. Cited. In large hospitals, each of these departments may be converted into several specialized and sub-specialized departments. Due to the workflow and performance of each intensive care unit, proper communication should be provided with other hospital departments.
Types of intensive care units
Intensive care units refer to the hospital spaces of patients who, due to their serious and semi-severe condition, need intensive and continuous care through specialized staff and special equipment.
In general, for different medical specialties, different intensive care units are foreseen, each of which is designed with the relevant specialized and functional needs. From the various intensive care units that are provided in general and specialized hospitals, we can include items such as general intensive care unit, surgical intensive care unit, internal intensive care unit, pediatric intensive care unit, neonatal intensive care unit, and care unit. Special heart, intensive care unit of cardiac surgery and... In large hospitals, each of these departments may become several specialized and sub-specialized departments.
Administrative and managerial department
The hospital is managed by different units under the supervision of the head and director of the hospital. In each hospital, an area should be considered for the location of administrative and managerial units. Some office spaces have a direct connection to the clients and patients' families, but some other spaces are provided only for the internal affairs of the hospital. Proper placement of the hospital's administrative department in other departments can increase the efficiency and effectiveness of this department and reduce the complexity of circulation.
Hospital support departments play a key role in providing all hospital services. Although none of the support departments are directly involved in providing medical services, in general, all day-to-day processes in all wards of a hospital are indirectly supported by these wards. Understanding the characteristics of support departments and their relationships and location is very important in how the hospital is designed. The minimum support departments of a hospital are as follows:
3. Central kitchen
4. Central staff dining
5. Staff central locker room
6. Central warehouse
7. Facilities, medical gases, and storage tanks
8. You have a palace
9. Central Pharmacy (Drug Warehouse)
10. Waste collection and disposal center
11. Maintenance management
12. Morgue (holding the body)