Principles of hospital design and equipment (Part 2)

Principles of hospital design and equipment (Part 2)

Standards, per capita and introduction of different wards of the hospital
Eng Sadegh Pourbakht, project manager of  Espo Company
Design tips
It is necessary to observe the following points in the design of hospitals:
Building a hospital in three separate main zones (hospitalization, outpatient, support) and at the same time having logical connections with each other is mandatory.
All hospital spaces, whether negative or positive, where human beings are constantly present, need to have natural light.
 Hospitals with more than 100 beds need to be designed to increase safety, structurally, and in proportion to the dimensions of the building in two or more separate parts that are separated by intermittent seams.
Hospital shape design can be done in two ways, conceptually or classically.
In the social, climatic, and economic conditions in Iran, the classical and rational design is more efficient.
The construction site of the hospital building on the selected land should be such that its four sides are open for emergency relief. Also, it is necessary to install relief routes.
In designing and constructing hospitals, it is necessary to observe the rules of municipalities and local authorities.
Hospital design should be done taking into account all effective factors such as climatic, cultural, religious, social, economic, and technical conditions.
In cold or tropical climates, hospitals must be built compactly to reduce energy consumption. Because in this case, the amount of contact between the side surfaces of the building and the outside air is minimal.
In cities and areas where there is no land restriction, hospitals should be widely designed and flat.
In cities and border and accident-prone areas, hospitals need to be designed extensively or horizontally.
In cities and areas where there is a limited number of relief facilities, the construction of vertical and high-rise hospitals is not allowed.
The per capita infrastructure of the hospital
The infrastructure of the hospital can be changed according to the architectural concept. In this way, for class (vertical) hospital hospitals, about 85 square meters per bed and for a large form, 120 square meters per bed is considered. Of course, building a hospital is more expensive.
Hospital zoning:
The hospital should have four main areas or blocks, including hospitals, clinics, paraclinical, and support:
Separation of patients from other hospitals in hospitals is done to increase the safety and well-being of patients and to facilitate treatment processes. It is safe to say that one of the main structural problems of hospitals today is the lack of good inter-sectoral and inter-regional relations between the wards and the various components of the hospital.
1- Hospital area:
This area includes all inpatient wards, operating rooms, special wards, ICUs, CCUs, D-clinics, emergency rooms, angiography, and more. There are also non-medical departments that provide services directly to patients, such as admissions, accounting, clearance, medical records, and information.
   The hospital area is the most important area of ​​the hospital, and other clinical, paraclinical, administrative, etc. areas are somehow dependent on it. Relations between all regions also follow the location of the main hospital area.
2- Outpatient area:
The area itself includes two sub-areas of clinics and paraclinical. Departments such as clinics, outpatient injections, and dressings, therapeutic and diagnostic assistance, laboratory, radiology, ultrasound, MRI, CT scan, nuclear medicine, physiotherapy, dialysis, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, echocardiography, exercise testing, pathology, endoscopy, Etc. are located in this area.
The layout of the mentioned sections should be designed in such a way as to provide the best intra-regional and inter-regional relations. At the same time, patients can use hospitalized paraclinical facilities simultaneously without interfering with the areas.
Under the polyclinic area:
It is best to consider a separate block or building for clinics. Preferably for hospitals with more than 400 beds, this block of clinics should be equipped with separate widely used paraclinical departments such as radiology, ultrasound, echocardiography, exercise testing, laboratory, and so on.
It is best to design the outpatient area as a separate block or building or zone but attached to the main hospital building. The block will be able to simultaneously serve in patients who are usually brought in my bed or on a stretcher with a paramedic, as well as outpatients. So that outpatients will not be able to enter the inpatient area or, to be more precise, the main hospital area.
It is strongly recommended that each area has a separate main courtyard and lobby.
Having a separate lobby for each area helps them to be conceptually and semantically better in the audience's mind. In this case, the message is subconsciously conveyed to the audience: "You only work in this building and you are not allowed to enter other buildings." This will help with zoning in hospitals.
Subclinical area:
It is recommended that for hospitals with more than 400 beds, all imaging departments such as radiology, ultrasound, CT scan, MRI, pet scan, radiotherapy, densitometry, etc. can be integrated as a whole due to their similar nature. Separate blocks or buildings attached to the main hospital building. If this block is connected to the hospital area in the hospital, it will also be connected to the main street